A complete list of trade agreements analyzed is shown in Table 1 (annex). 20. Fagiolo G, Squartini T, Garlaschelli D. Zero models of economic networks: the fall of global web trade. J Econ Int Coordinator. (2013) 8:75-107. doi: 10.1007/s11403-012-0104-7 Keywords: Trade agreement, international trade, complex networks, network of networks, random walk 9. Krugman PR. The step towards free trade zones. In: Proceedings – Economic Policy Symposium. Jackson Hole.1991.
S.7-58. Available online at: ideas.repec.org/a/fip/fedkpr/y1991p7-58.html In this work, we use the idea of flow networks to define commercial connectivity (IT) between two countries based on the dependency measures of inputs and outputs originally used in , 13. Der A, Baccini L, Elsig M. The design of international trade agreements: introduction of a new data set. Rev Int Organ. (2014) 9:353-75. doi: 10.1007/s11558-013-9179-8 Some association magazines require you to create a personal profile and then activate your social account 29. Garlaschelli D, Loffredo MI.
Structure and development of the global trading network. Physica A. (2005) 255:138-44. doi: 10.1016/j.physa.2005.02.075 For this study, we analyze the effects of all 107 BTA with an effective date between 1995 and 2008. To analyze the IT between the two partners in such cases, we first aggregate all trade flows within the respective trading bloc, while maintaining the homogeneous sectoral structure. Second, IT is calculated as shown below, while the corresponding C-node rate is made up of the 26 industrial sectors of the trade bloc and its final demand sector. We were re-ensaning the IT obtained in all the countries of the regional trading bloc. Figure 8. The commercial entry link between Algeria and the European Union for different choices of the maximum length of the trails: (A) max – 1 and (B) max – 10. The year 2005 in which the BTA came into force is indicated by the red vertical line. The regression model selected by the AIC criterion is indicated by the green line, which gives the corresponding maximum probability setting.
It is essential to take into account the increase in the (indirect) effects of trade flows in order to take into account the possible existence of high reciprocal dependence on production between sectors that are not direct suppliers or consumers, but are still members of the same supply chain. These addictions occur. B, for example, when two branches have the same trading partner, i.e. when the i and k industries are connected by a length 2 path. In particular, in a scenario where I buy products (entries) of k and sell goods to i, the node i could be affected by a shortage of k supply, which is transmitted further than j [34-36]. In order to further assess the impact of these higher-order dependencies, we are studying the role of the maximum length of the max path in defining IT. The methodology used in this study can be used for follow-up studies on some EEAs or sectoral effects of such agreements. A specific agreement of interest, for example, reveals whether third countries have been discriminated against as a result of this agreement. More detailed case studies will be made possible for input-exit data, with higher sectoral details. We also stress that our approach can still be adapted and extended to allow for an IT impact assessment of multilateral trade agreements such as the North American Free Trade Agreement or the European Union.